Reach advantage: In melee where one combatant has a reach of advantage of 3' or more over the other, the individual with the greater reach receives a +1 individual bonus to initiative. This advantage persists until the individual with the shorter reach achieves a successful hit, at which point that character is considered to have closed in, the reach advantage is negated, and, depending on the comparative speed factors of the weapons involved, the characters with the faster weapon may be entitled to extra attacks (q.v. DMG p. 66). A character with more attack routines than his or her opponent (whether due to superior speed or skill) or any character with the advantage of surprise is always able to close successfully and negate superior reach.
When calculating reach, the character's size matters as well as the length of the weapon being used. Any individual 3' tall or smaller (e.g. a halfling, kobold, xvart, tasloi, pixie, brownie, etc.) has an effective reach 1' shorter than indicated by their weapon type (e.g. a kobold wielding a club has a reach of 2' rather than 3'). Creatures larger than man-sized add 1' to their reach for every 3' in height above 6', so a creature 9-11' in height (e.g. an ogre, hill giant, bone, horned, or ice devil, or solar) has +1' reach, one 12-14' tall (e.g. a stone, fire, mountain, or fomorian giant, ettin, yagnodaemon, pit fiend, or type VI demon) has +2' reach, 15-17' tall (e.g. a frost giant, Orcus) gives +3' reach, 18-20' (e.g. a cloud or fog giant, or titan) gives +4', and 21-24' (e.g. a storm giant) gives +5' reach. Thus a type VI demon armed with a greatsword has a reach of 8' and advantage over any melee opponent whose weapon does not have greater than 5' reach. Large monsters that attack by claws or biting, such as trolls and type III-IV demons, still apply their size bonus to their natural reach, so for example a troll's claws have a 3' reach and the fists of a massive goristro demon have a reach of 7'.
Speed factor for natural weapons: Natural weapons (claws, bites, kicks, horns/antlers, stingers, etc.) have the following assumed speed factor: 1 for Small-sized creatures, 2 for Medium-sized creatures, and 4 for Large-sized creatures. This value is used both for breaking tied initiative rolls and also for determining bonus attacks against opponents with slower weapons. However, note that opponents with superior Reach (see above) will at least initially be able to hold many of these attackers at bay.
Use of holy symbols: Holy (or unholy) symbols have differences in effectiveness depending on the material of which they are made. An iron holy (or unholy) symbol allows a +1 bonus to Turning Undead attempts made by clerics against chaotic evil undead (ghouls, shadows, ghasts, vampires, apparitions, coffer corpses, huecuvae, sons of Kyuss, and demons). Furthermore, any chaotic evil undead or lower-planar being struck by a properly-consecrated iron holy (or unholy) symbol (cf. Holy Symbol spell, UA p. 35) suffers 1-3 points of damage and must make a morale check or retreat for 1-3 rounds.A silver holy (or unholy) symbol has the same effect but with respect to lawful evil undead (wights, wraiths, mummies, spectres, ghosts, poltergeists, and devils) and lower-planar beings. A holy (or unholy) symbol made of nickel costs 10 g.p. and has the same effect against daemons and other neutral evil lower-planar beings and undead (liches, juju zombies). For purposes of striking, a holy symbol is considered to have a weapon speed of 2, length and space requirement of 1', no weapon vs AC adjustments, and does not require a proficiency slot for use.